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Qtwyqp Qly

Lesson 3
Adverbs

Adverb Formation

Regular Adverbs

Regular adverbs are identified by their vowels, which are always wa.

Adverbs follow the verb that they modify.

Qtympp ṅlay yayqt. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat.
"I studied philosophy. I studied philosophy thoroughly."

If the adverb is not found in the dictionary, then it may be formed by changing the vowels of the corresponding adjective from ly or lr to wa.

Dympsh qṅyqq qqlygg qthyoygg. Dympsh qṅyqq qthyoygg qqwagg.
"A loud child destroyed the gift. A child destroyed the gift loudly."

Strength and Affirmation

Most adverbs in Qtwyqp Qly are weak. Making an adverb strong in Qtwyqp Qly is like placing the word "very" before it in English.

As for verbs, adverbs may be either affirmative or negative. Note that in the following examples that it is the manner, not the action which is denied.

Both these properties are indicated by the nasal which follows the vowels: none for weak and affirmative, m for strong and affirmative, n for weak and negative, and for strong and negative.

Dympsh qṅyqq qthyoygg qqwagg. Dympsh qṅyqq qthyoygg qqwamgg. Dympsh qṅyqq qthyoygg qqwangg. Dympsh qṅyqq qthyoygg qqwagg.
"A child destroyed the gift loudly. A child destroyed the gift very loudly. The child didn't destroy the gift loudly. The child didn't destroy the gift very loudly."

Comparisons with Adverbs

Comparitive Form

An adverb is made comparative from its positive (regular) form by placing a clause after it. A comparative form states that the action was done more or less in the manner signified by the adverb than the action done by or to another subject or object respectively or another action.

The clause adverb ble _ ttlo dle means "more adverb than _". The clause adverb ble _ tlo dle means "less adverb than _". The clause adverb ble _ zzlo dle means "as adverb as _". Consider the following examples:

Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble nloy ttlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble nloy tlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble nloy zzlo dle.
"I studied philosophy more thoroughly than he did. I studied philosophy less thoroughly than he did. I studied philosophy as thoroughly as he did."

Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble qtympt ttlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble qtympt tlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble qtympt zzlo dle.
"I studied philosophy more thoroughly than botany. I studied philosophy less thoroughly than botany. I studied philosophy as thoroughly as botany."

Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble loym ṅlaym bbṅyaysp ttlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble loym ṅlaym bbṅyaysp tlo dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble loym ṅlaym bbṅyaysp zzlo dle.
"I studied philosophy more thoroughly than I cared about it. I studied philosophy less thoroughly than I cared about it. I studied philosophy as thoroughly as I cared about it."

Superlative Form

The superlative is also formed by adding a clause. The clause ble ttwad dle means "most". The clause ble twad dle means "least". For example:

Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble ttwad dle. Qtympp ṅlay yayqt ttwat ble twad dle.
"I studied philosophy most thoroughly. I studied philosophy least thoroughly."

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Last Updated: 2009-05-02