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Qtwyqp Qly

Lesson 5
Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Formation

Personal pronouns are pure NVVVN, no CCs at all.

The first N indicates gender: none for neuter, m for feminine, n for masculine, and for inclusive.

The first V is always l. Three vowels, the first of which is l, is the signature of personal pronouns.

The second V indicates person: a for first person, e for second person, and o for third person.

The third V indicates number: y for singular and r for plural.

The second N indicates case and affirmation: none for nominative and affirmative, m for objective and affirmative, n for nominative and negative, and for objective and negative.

Gnwymgz nlay bbaygh! Gnwymgz mler bbergh! Gnwymgz ṅloy bboygh! Gnwymgz larn bbargh.
"I (masculine) hate God! You (plural, feminine) hate God! He or she hates God! It's not we (things) that hate God."

Nlaym Gnwygz bboygh! Mlerm Gnwygz bboygh! Ṅloym Gnwygz bboygh! Larṅ Gnwygz bboygh.
"God hates me (masculine)! God hates you (plural, feminine)! God hates him or her. It's not we things which God hates."

Possessive Adjectives

Formation

Possessive adjectives are not technically pronouns, but like pronouns, and unlike adjectives, they carry information about gender and number which is independent of the gender and number of the noun.

Each possessive adjective is in the form NVVN.

The first N indicates gender: none for neuter, m for feminine, n for masculine, and for inclusive.

The first V indicates number: y for singular and r for plural.

The second V indicates person: a for first person, e for second person, and o for third person.

The second N indicates strength and affirmation: none for weak and affirmative, m for strong and affirmative, n for weak and negative, and for strong and negative. A possessive adjective is usually weak, but is made strong if the object which it claims is unalienable, that is, can't be taken away, such as an arm or one's mind.

Qmyphp ṅya ṅlay bbaybd. Qmyphp myo ṅlay bbaybd. Qmyphp ṅyan ṅlay bbaybd. Gzrmg ṅyem ṅlay bbaybd. Gzrmg mya ṅlay bbaybd.
"I love my wife. I love her wife. I love a wife which is not my own. I love your eyes. I love eyes which are not hers."

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Last Updated: 2009-05-02