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Qtwyqp Qly

Lesson 8

Spatial Postpositions


Postpositions are the Qtwyqp Qly equivalent of prepositions. They are identified by the fact that their only vowel is w. Postpositions, like adjectives, have strength and affirmation indicated by the nasal which follows the vowels. Strong indicates a precise location, while weak indicates an approximate location. Negating a postposition in Qtwyqp Qly is like placing "not" before a preposition in English.


Postpositions are called such, because they follow the nouns which they indicate the relative positions of. English usually has the order: Noun1+Preposition+Noun2, but Qtwyqp Qly used the order: Noun1+Noun2+Postposition. Furthermore, in Qtwyqp Qly, postpositions in combination with the nouns that they govern function much like adjectives. The noun governed by the postposition is always in the objective case.

Qṅrmqq ṅyam ṅr zhymph ddwm zzor.
"The ones right next to the river are my children."

Temporal Postpositions

Contrast with Spatial Prepositions

Temporal prepositions are grammatically identical to spatial prepositions, which poses a problem: While conceptually, these prepositions modify the verb, grammatically they modify whichever one of the nouns is most appropriate. Sometimes you can get around this by using conjunctions instead.

Nlor mlor dhdw ṅlay qhyaybh.
"I threw a snowball at him after (I threw a snowball at) her."

Other Postpositions


Other postpositions, such as those which translate "to" and "from" conceptually serve to introduce other nominal cases, but grammatically they modify whichever one of the nouns is most appropriate.

Dympsh ṅlaym phwb qnyqq ṅyam qṅymphp ṅya phwd doypsh.
"My son gave the gift from me to my spouse."

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Last Updated: 2009-05-02