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Qtwyqp Qly

Lesson 11
Syntax

Complete Utterances

Introduction

In this lesson we will review and clarify the syntax you've already learned, and you will learn some new syntactical rules. Qtwyqp Qly has a definite syntax that must be obeyed in most cases. When something new is covered, the use of such a structure will be explained.

The Basic Statement Structures

Any of the following structures constitutes a statement:

Notes on the terminology: an "active finitive verb" is any active verb which is not an infinitive; similar for "passive finitive verb"; "binary" means it takes two operands (in this case, statements); "unary" means it takes one operand (in this case, statement).

The Basic Question Structure

The following constitutes a question:

Note on terminology: "interrogative" refers to the h which begins question words.

The Basic Phatic Structures

Any of the following structures constitutes a phatic utterance:

Partial Utterances

Introduction

These utterances may be used in informal circumstances, but mostly they are identified here in order to define the componets of complete utterances. Here I speak of replacement: unless noted, even a componet that was included in the replacement of another componet can be replaced by another set of componets as defined.

nominative noun

Any nominative noun may stand on its own or be replaced by one of the following:

Or it may be replaced by the following, after which the nominative noun in the replacement may not be replaced by the following:

objective noun

Any objective noun may stand on its own or be replaced by one of the following:

Or it may be replaced by the following, after which the objective noun in the replacement may not be replaced by the following:

adjective

Any adjective may stand on its own or be replaced by one of the following:

Or it may be replaced by the following, after which the adjective in the replacement may not be replaced by the following:

cardinal

Any cardinal may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

ordinal

Any ordinal may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

active finite verb

Any active finite verb may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

Or it may be replaced by one of the following, after which the active finite verb in the replacement may not be replaced by one of the following:

passive finite verb

Any passive finite verb may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

Or it may be replaced by the following, after which the passive finite verb in the replacement may not be replaced by the following:

active infinite verb

Any active infinite verb may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

Or it may be replaced by one of the following, after which the active infinite verb in the replacement may not be replaced by one of the following:

passive infinite verb

Any passive infinite verb may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

Or it may be replaced by the following, after which the passive infinite verb in the replacement may not be replaced by the following:

adverb

Any adverb may stand on its own or be replaced by one of the following:

Or it may be replaced by one of the following, after which the adverb in the replacement may not be replaced by one of the following:

adverbial ordinal

Any adverbial ordinal may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

number of occurance

Any number of occurance may stand on its own or be replaced by the following:

para1

This special designation refers to one of the following:

The ble + objective noun + dle construction is used after a noun to indicate what that noun is.

Ṅlaym Tnwyth ble zznyphp dle ghyoyqp.
"Timothy, who is a gay man, argued with me."

The ble + nominative noun + active finite verb + dle construction is used to indicate what is done to the noun and by whom.

Qmymsp nyom Tnwyth ble qṅr nyom bborbd dle zzoyd.
"Timothy, who is loved by his family, is at war with his mother."

The ble + objective noun + active finite verb + dle construction is used to indicate what the noun does and to what/whom. Note that the active finite verb in this construction is conjugated to match the noun that the construction modifies.

Tnwyth ble qmymsp nyom zzoyd dle bboymbd.
"Timothy, who is at war with his family, is loved."

The ble + passive finite verb + dle construction is used to indicate what is done to the noun without indicating the agent.

Qmymsp nyom Tnwyth ble bboymbd dle zzoyd.
"Timothy, who is loved, is at war with his mother."

para2

This special designation refers to one of the following:

The ble + nominative noun + dle construction means "in the same manner as…"

Tnwymth ṅlay bbaysp ble qmysp nyom dle.
"I care about Timothy just like his mother does."

The ble + active infinite verb + dle construction means "as if…"

Ṅlaym Nwyb bdyoygz ble bdṅyoybg dle.
"Robert befriended me as if he were adhering to me"

The ble + passive infinite verb + dle construction also means "as if…"

Loy pshoym ble pshṅoymps dle.
"It was possessed as if owned."

The ble + statement + dle construction is used to describe the manner of an event by means of another event.

Mloym ṅlay bdayzz ble ṅlaym mloy bboybd dle.
"I requite her love like she loves me."

para3

This special designation refers to one of the following:

The ble + adverb + dle construction is used to allow an adverb to modify an adjective or another adverb.

Nym bdlygg ble bdwat dle nloy zzoy.
"He is romatically magnetic."

para4

This special designation refers to one of the following:

The ble + objective noun + dle construction means "as is done to…"

Ṅlaym ṅloy bboyzz ble ṅleym dle.
"He or she is a companion to me as to you."

para5

This special designation refers to one of the following:

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Last Updated: 2009-05-02