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Intero

Intero was the project of Jonathan Moore and me. We both speak Esperanto, both agree that Esperanto has flaws, and both agree that Ido did a poor job of reforming Esperanto. Thus, we began discussing the flaws of Esperanto and before long, we were creating (yet another) clone of it. We decided to call it Intero while we worked on it, and the name stuck. Intero gets its name from the Esperanto preposition inter meaning "between". In the text that follows, my contributions will be in this color, and Jon's contributions will be in this color.

Developmental Principles

  1. Intero shall be something between Esperanto and Ido.
  2. Intero shall not deviate from Esperanto any further than is judged necessary.
  3. Intero shall be more regular than Esperanto.
  4. Intero shall use the unmodified latin alphabet.
  5. Intero words shall be easier to pronounce.

Notice principle number two. Since Intero deviates not too much from Esperanto, it is possible to define the Intero language by simply noting its differences from Esperanto, and that is what I intend to do. However, that does mean that if you don't know anything about Esperanto, then you will have to learn about it before learning Intero. But on the plus side, we don't have to create dictionaries and lessons and such for Intero! If an aspect of the language isn't listed here, then it's just like Esperanto.

Orthographic Reform

Above are just the orthographic reforms. They change in the written language, but not in the spoken language. In the following text, replacements for ĝ and ĥ will be given.

Phonetic Reform

Also presented above is the one major obstacle to defining Intero from Esperanto: the v- to w- change. Since I don't have a list of words to which this change applies, I would leave it up to the speaker for now and accept either the v- or the w- variants as correct.

Grammatic Reform

Above, I note that the primitive adverbs take new endings. First, they may or may not drop their old endings according to this rule: one by one each letter is dropped from the end of the word until the last letter is a letter other than a, e, i, j, o, u, or ŭ. If the word is like nur, then it loses no letters and just becomes nurel. Most importantly, note that ne becomes nel. Continuing with the grammatic reform…

Pronomials
NominalPossessiveDescriptiveEsperanto original roots
singularpluralsingualpluralsingularplural
1stmomoymesmoyesmamoyami, ni
2ndcommontotoytestoyestatoyavi
rarecocoycescoyescacoyaci
3rdmasculinelabolaboylabeslaboyeslabalaboyali, ili
femininelinolinoylineslinoyeslinalinoyaŝi, ili
commonloloylesloyeslaloyaŝli, li (aŭ ŝi), ili
neuterxoxoyxesxoyesxaxoyaĝi, ili
impersonalnonoynesnoyesnanoyaoni
reflexivezozoyzeszoyeszazoyasi

When a preposition is prefixed to a verb:

The Esperanto construction in which a preposition precedes a noun which takes the accusative -n becomes the Intero construction in which en- is prefixed to the preposition. The noun still follows the preposition.

Vocabulary Reform

Adopt these Ido affixes:

affixmeaning
-atrlike, similar to, -ish
-edthe full of, amount corresponding to
-eriestablishment where something is made or done
-ifto produce, generate, secrete
-iksick of, suffering from
-ivable to, capable of
para-warding off
-peca part or piece which is not the smallest possible

Expand the correlatives and related words like this:

Intero wordmeaningnotes
kiaokind/sortThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kialoreasonThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kiamotimeThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kieoplace/locationThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kielomannerThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kienodirectionThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kiesoownerThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kioothingThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kiomoamountThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
kiuopersonThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
athe _ kind ofThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
albecauseThe Esperanto ĉar becomes the Intero al. The Esperanto al becomes the Intero en.
amat (time)This is an addition to the vocabulary.
ein (place)The Esperanto en becomes the Intero e.
elby (instrumental)This is an addition to the vocabulary. The Esperanto el becomes the Intero de.
ento (place)The Esperanto al becomes the Intero en. The Esperanto en becomes the Intero e.
esof (possession)This is an addition to the vocabulary. Note that it does not completely replace the Esperanto de. The word de is still used in descriptions, e.g. bildo de Johano means "picture of John" which does not indicate that John owns the picture, but only that he is in it.
oa/anThis is an addition to the vocabulary. The use of this word is optional because it is not a necessary deviation from Esperanto.
omof (quantity)The Esperanto da becomes the Intero om. Note that om reverses the syntax of da, e.g. the Esperanto dekduo da libroj becomes the Intero libroy om dekduo.
utheThe Esperanto la becomes the Intero u.
aliaanother kindThis is an addition to the vocabulary. The Esperanto alia becomes the Intero aliu.
alialanother reasonThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
aliamanother timeThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
alieanother placeThis is an addition to the vocabulary. The Esperanto alie becomes the Intero aliel.
alielanother mannerThe Esperanto alie becomes the Intero aliel.
alienanother directionThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
aliesanother'sThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
aliomanother amountThis is an addition to the vocabulary.
aliuanotherThe Esperanto alia becomes the Intero aliu. The Esperanto alio becomes the Intero aliu only when alio refers to a person.

Note each of the original correlatives now has a long form, for example:

Here are the rest of the vocabulary changes:

That's it. See a sample text.

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Last Updated: 2009-05-02